Ian Blackburn


I believe that this passage shows the caution in which the town sees the Radley’s they are seen as “alien” as they do not take part in most of the town traditions like the rest of the town. In school we see how far this caution is maintained people thought that “Radley pecans would kill you.” This shows that people would go so far that they wouldn’t accept pecans from that tree in their garden.

People didn’t just not eat Radley pecans they blamed the Radley’s for any petty crimes which were unsolved. This shows that the Radley’s are a bit of a scape goat (they aren’t the only scape goats in this book.). Even when they found out who committed the crimes people were “unwilling to discard their initial suspicions.” The Radley’s were frowned upon by the community their were many suspicions of them without any evidence. “People said he went out at night when the moon was down, and peeped in windows.” This is an accusation which has no evidence but is widely believed by the whole community. earlier on in this passage it foreshadowed by saying that dill is brought to the radley front door like the moon brings water. This shows Hippocratic as it isn’t bad for dill to peek on boo radley but not of boo radley to do the same.

All of the preconceptions about boo show him as a mocking bird as he has to fit the preconsived ideas about him as he is not normal. mocking birds mimic the calls of other birds this show how boo has to mimic his place in society even though he is a normal person. this shows the binary view maycomb has

gulf war “wars for oil.”

many people through that the gulf war was a war about oil they thought this because some of the biggest oil producing country’s  in the world where involved. the country’s involved in the conflict made around 50 percent of the worlds oil. because the us were the biggest super power in the world they thought that they could sort out the problems in the gulf this did not go as expected.

the first Persian gulf war 1990-1991

this happen just after the cold war. in the summer of 1990 Iraq lead by Saddam Hussein armed with the worlds sixth largest military invaded Kuwait from multiple reasons.

they were in debt so they thought that Kuwait oil could solve their problems.

they also thought that Kuwait were taking their oil.

they also thought that Kuwait were flooding the market with cheap oil to stop Iraq from get richer.

the us being the biggest superpower had to respond. led by president bush america assembled a coalition of nations from around the world to defend Saudi Arabia from Iraqi militants.the UN decide to make a trade embargo to make Iraq leave they did not so the UN unforced desert shied where they armed missiles then desert storm which would bomb Iraq for several months.this cause Iraq the become disarmed and had it oil sails limited however sadam stayed in power .


operation desert sheild

When the Iraq troops did not leave Kuwait they decided to send troops in to the Persian gulf area. from 7th august 1990, the Us started sending more and more troops and resources into the PGA in order to enforce the UN’s declaration.

on 8th of august president bush made a public statement in which he tried to explain his policy towards the invasion in an attempt to win support.


Operation Desert Storm


As Iraqi troops did not withdraw on the 15th January, the US led Operation Desert Storm, whereby on the 17th January they started retaliating against the Iraqi invaders. Led by Schwarzkopf, Desert Storm was a series of air strikes supported by naval action.

Israel responded by sending scud missiles to Israel hoping that Israel would retaliate and lead other Arab countries into the war, but the US persuaded them not to intervene. The US then used their own missiles to intercept the missiles sent by Iraq.

The UN coalition soon had dominance in the skies and in the seas. They entered Kuwait on the 24th February 1991, and four days later had driven the Iraqi’s out of Kuwait and on the 28th, a ceasefire was declared.

key points

Sudan hussian stays in power

destruction of all chemical and biological weapons

permission of UN to asses that other points had been obeyed.

why did sadam Hussein order his army to invade Kuwait. he belived that Kuwait were holding down oil prices and were trying to steal their oil.to solve debts

when Gorbachev found out that saddam Hussein invaded he stopped all trade with sadam within hours and talked to the UN and USA about a security council resolution demanding Iraq immediate withdrawal.

bushes new world order was an odre in which the world s leading powers worked together to try and prevent aggression and to enforce law international.

he sent troops in because

The USA in post cold war world

1991 yeltsin

1999 Putin

in 1991 america felt like they were the only super power left in the world this was because the USSR had disbanded in to much poorer countries. the only country’s that could compete with them didn’t want to. China and the Europe were the only places rich enough to become super powers but they focused on having good economies.

Americas possible aim of the USA during the 1990s

to work with European allies to create a peaceful democratic Europe.

to act as the worlds police force by protecting underdeveloped country’s against agression

to take the lead in technological development.

to advance human wrights through out the world

to secure us economic and trade interests.

to promote stability in the middle east.

1999 us carried out a international survey on their influence

83 percent thought that America had a positive influence through out the world in Britain.

37 percent thought that America had positive influence through out the world in Russia.

1990 the transatlantic declaration  to safeguard peace to work together to combat terrorism.work together to make eastern Europe more stable.

1995 the new transatlantic agenda

aims corporate to world peace, respond to global challenge of terrorism expand world trade.


the un responded immediately to the invasion by passing resolution 660 on2 august this condemned the action of iraq demanded an immediate withdrawal of Iraqi troops and that Iraq and Kuwait solve their differences by negotiation on 6 august the un security council imposed a global trade embargo on iraq  as they had not withdrawn from Kuwait this was followed by an ultimatum issued on 29 November un resolution 678 which threatened military action against iraq if they did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 1991

ronald reagan: the cold war reaches new levels.

ronald reagan was a very right wing leader.

reagan wasn’t the best politically informed, he was also very hostile to the USSR because of his opposite ideology.  He though that nuclear weapons were not enough an tht they need to be always ahead of the USSR because he didn’t belive in mutual assured destruction. he though that they needed something extra.ronald reagan had no plans to resume  detant as he though that you should see the arms race as a giant misunderstanding because the though in black and white terms like the usa were good and the ussr where bad.


strategic defence initative


list conserns of ronld

the Cuban missile crisis

the usa where the clear winners of the the arms races. The Americans had more than the ussr in nuclear tech as they had many more nuclear weapons they also had a way of launching their missiles which the ussr had not, but they were afraid of the USSR’s space technology as they had launch the first animals in space they also had the first robot on the moon. people said that the us was sleeping under a red moon.

but the USSR were not wealthy enough to produced the same amount of missiles kruchicheve said that producing missile like they were sausages this was an empty boast.


the USA reconises that castro is the new leader


castro had started to side with communism the communist gave Cuba weapons like the Truman doctrine and Marshall plan.

castro took over some of the usas businesses and all of the sugar farms.

investigating ways to overthrow Castro

damaging Cubans crop disrupt Cuban economy

stop trading oils with them and many other substances.

the us cut them self off from cuba


Castro did this to become a more firm leader, he wanted to do what the people wanted as well he put the sugar money into education and helped the poor this worked as his brother is in power to this day

they bay of pigs was an invasion from the usa  the exciles where the attackers the invasion failed all of the 1400 exiles were kill or captured within days. the exiles were poorly trained.

ICBM the inter Continental ballistic missile



The Crucible

The first act of any book is the most important. If you can’t cement the characters in the reader’s mind thoroughly then your story will be disjointed and lacking clarity. I believe that Arthur Miller does a good job of this as he explains each and every character with lots of detail, something not many play-writes do as well as him.

The main characters in the first act I think are Betty, John proctor, Abigail and Paris. These character are ether physically or mentally attracted to Betty’s situation. Betty is in a coma like state and her father the reverend of the dull town Salem is doing everything in his power to help his girl, and save the Parish.

This incident is very important to Paris, This is his parish and if he can’t keep witches and devils out of his home then how will he keep them from his town. Parris ideas are shown well in the first act, he believes “there is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit.”this idea is what drives his decision and the actions he takes.

Abigail shows that she is not all that she seems clearly in the first act, at first when speaking to pairs she shows her self to be a frighten girl. when talking to mercy she show a different character with more control. she shows a third face when talking to John proctor, she shows love and lust for John. the different side’s of Abigail shows that she is a more complex character that she originally seems.

John proctor is well described by Arthur miller. “he is a sinner” describes him very well through out the first act his mischievous going are exposed to the audience.he not only has had a sexual relationship with a minor but he wants to become the reverend of the parish.

In act 2 it doesn’t just deepen the story it gives characters motives and explores salem a bit more that the frist act witch takes place solely in bettys room.

John proctors character is starting to develop into a protagonist, the second act gives him a role and a task to fulfill. This I believe begins to show him as the main character. You can also see the inner battle about to surface, as he has to deal with his thoughts to do what is right by his moral compass.His relationship with his wife I believe symbolises his inner battle as they show many emotions within the second act which could be similar to what john is feeling inside.”I do not judge you. The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you. I never thought you but a good man,” thisb thisb Elizabeth’s opinion of john I believe it also is similar to his on him delf. He wants to be a good man and live up to his views of him self. But he judges him self harshly, although he says that his wife need to learn charity, I believe that he would help himself if he did also. Artur miller does this to create a small amount of sympathy for john.


cell course work

I sat there bored. Fumbling with my pen, I glanced slowly up at the shadow that I had just noticed above me. Tom sat in his chair looking straight into my eyes. “Stay on task.” he said almost casually. I looked out the window, and at the bright stars which lit the winter sky. Tom then said in a slightly harsher tone “Do. Your. Work. ” This time his voice had a strange ring to it that seemed to draw me to the glowing screen with a word document on it. The glow of the screen seemed to hurt my eyes.

I began to focus and my eyes began to adjust to the screen. It started to look familiar. I put down the pen and my hands returned to the keyboard. I couldn’t.“Stick on task!?” He blurted out as if he was asking a question. This time he didn’t use a different tone. He didn’t even open his mouth. I had to do something but what! I bolted “Claire, Claire!” Tom said, now standing up. He looked a lot Less relaxed now. I was sprinting for the door. It was getting closer, but slowly, too slowly. I arrived at the door, my body new what to do. I had done this so many times before. As I ran down the corridor Tom shouted “Are you sure you want to do this, remember the others.”

I reached the train station. I was panting hard, I then sat down. “Claire, come back, we can stop this together.” He sounded weary. Although I heard his voice crystal clear I couldn’t see him. My heart started beating faster and faster.

I tried to be normal, like everyone else, I walked to the food dispenser, he can’t harass me here? “I wouldn’t advise that.”  He said almost chuckling to himself. “Shut up” I blurted out I reach into the tray and pull out my kit kat chunky. I looked around but he wasn’t there. I hated him, I hate him with a passion, I hated his telekinesis power that got him the job. I could imagine him siting in his chair now, looking at the night sky or staring mindlessly into my distracted eyes. I was surprised by this but it had that same feeling, that shocks within you, you feel it deep in your belly, the type of feeling that makes you want to throw up. I felt like a bird in a cage.

Four hours later. I stared into the ceiling on my bed, I couldn’t sleep. It was hard to try and sleep when you knew you where being watched when you had no control over it. I was thinking about my privacy ever since, it made me feel uncomfortable. Just thinking about him staring at me, waiting for me to give him something.

“Tom can you see me?”I thought. While awaiting a response I though if he can see me then he may have seen me at home before. I thought what stops him from doing this when he wants, has he ever done this before? Does he know my bank account numbers. How much have let him see. How much, does he know, my birthday, he probably know everyone’s Birthday? He probably has seen me naked? He probably seen all of us naked! What hasn’t he seen is the real question. Is he able to look at our true thoughts? I hope not.

All I can do is bloody hope.


love and hate course work

In Julius Caesar both love and hate are recurring themes. The characters in Julius Caesar talk a lot about their love for Rome and or their hate for Caesar. I believe this is shown well through the relationship between Brutus and Cassius. They both love Rome like all noble Romans should (cassius love for rome is only on the surface in reality he is motivated by his own goals), but they have differing views on Caesar.In Robert Browning the speakers in his Poetry often use speak about love and hate. The characters in browning poetry (porphyria’s lover) show suggestive signs of both love and hate.

Early on in the play Cassius shows envy toward Caesar, he does this to persuade Brutus to join the conspirators. Cassius shows he’s disgusted with Caesar through the quote “a man of such a feeble temper should so get the start of the majestic world and bear the palm alone.” This is Cassius view on Caesar in the first act while talking to Brutus. He is in the middle of a long monologues during the first act one. In this monologue Shakespeare uses language devices to show hatred and envy. You can see this as Cassius tells both the audience and Brutus a story about how Caesar used to be weaker and not as great and that he saved him when he was too weak to swim across the Tiber.”tis true, this god did shake, his coward lips did from their colour fly” when he speaks about Caesar in this quote he mocks him calling him a god but then later says his lips were cowardly. I believe one of the main reasons that Shakespeare has Cassius in this play is to show blind hatred.

On the other hand Brutus shows his love for Caesar throughout the play as even once he kills Caesar he feels guilty and wants the public to see his reason. In the first act he is still being introduced but one of the first things he says in the play is that he loves Caesar “I would not, Cassius, yet I loved him well.” as this is one of the main conspirators in Caesar death this show how Brutus shows passion and love is linked to Cassius hate and envy.

I believe this is the first sign of hate and love working together in the play and the theme continues throughout. In act two scene one Shakespeare shows Brutus’ love for Caesar by justifying his opinion to the other conspirators.Brutus’ shows love for Caesar by justifying his opinion to the other conspirators. “let’s be sacrificers, but not butchers,” In this speech Brutus spares Anthony but not only that, he wants Caesar to be a sacrifice, as if he is killing him out of love.  When talking to the rest of the conspirators he then says  “And therefore think him as a serpent’s egg,
Which, hatch’d, would as his kind grow mischievous,And kill him in the shell” This shows that Brutus is trying to justify his guilt for later killing Caesar. Not only that but he also is trying to show to him self and the conspirators that he is doing it for love. I believe that he is so guilty that he has to push him self away mentally from the crime his will commit. This symbolism is also shown in the laboratory-ancient regime as the speaker talks about the poison the alchemist is making as “trade in this devil’s-smithy—” although Brutus is calling Caesar a serpent for love. The speaker in the laboratory is using symbolism in hate of her lover. I believe that she is tiring to justify killing her ex’s lover by taking her own life. Both Brutus and the speaker in the laboratory show that they try to justify their actions but in the end both commit suicide. This show not only shows irony but it does show foreshadowing.

William Blake shows passion in the poison tree as the speaker uses it to fuel his hate the futher through the more passionate he get till he turns that passion it to a force against his foe this shows how dangerous passion is and that it can really hurt someone.

In The Laboratory-Ancien Régime

Browning shows passion is something to be feared and can be consuming. Although the narrator kills Porphyria seemingly without reason, his mood is represented through the weather “It tore the elms tops down for spite and did its best to vex the lake” The opening of the poem helps illustrate the narrators anger. The techniques is called pathetic fallacy, as it describes the weather with words that you associate with a bad temper. Not only do I think that browning wants to show the narrators dark outlook but I believe that he also is trying to show that Porphyria her self angers the narrator, although this does not justify her death it does give use a reason, it also show a reason why he hates Porphyria to begin with. Through out the poem it talks about as a she, this shows that the speaker doesn’t respect Porphyria much. This would make sense as the time it was written when women were treated in this way a lot.I also believe that the killer kills her because he wants her to always love him and a way of insuring this is by her being dead. In porphyria lover the killer says “that moment she was mine, mine,” this show how he is dependent on her love. and that his passion is so encompassing that he goes the the extreme of killing her so she loves him forever.

The Laboratory-Ancien Régime is a very descriptive poem. In most of the stanzas browning uses symbolism to present the speaker’s view on her self and the two other people she is talking about. In the second stanza she very clearly shows that she hates the man that she used to love. “they believe my tears flow while they laugh laugh at me at me fled to the drear.”I believe that this is  implying that the speaker is trying to tell us that her ex and his lover thinks she is angry for what they did to her. She says it like they should be guilty for what they did to her. what she really means is that she should be sad, but her passion for her lover has turned into a hating him with a passion. I believe this is similar to Brutus as he doesn’t really hate Caesar but he turns his love for him into the passion he uses to kill him. This passion gets him killed just like the woman in the laboratory. She poisons her self and Brutus commits suicide.

Further through the monologue Porphyria’s lover describes Porphyria’s love as something that she cannot control. This is a sign of a love that is just as extreme as his potential hate. Maybe this was one of the things the writer was trying to portray at the time as he could have tried to resemble the hate for the women acting against the public opinion. In the lover and resemble the innocence of woman. Her uncontrollable love for him could be why she got killed he could not live with out it so to ensure it for ever he killed her. This shows the unhinged character of the killer and that he feeds off her which is unlike popular opinion at the time as women were always seen as less then men.

Hate and love can grow, this is shown in Julius ceasar as Brutus starts by questioning the conspiracy but ends up leading it, his love for Rome ends up growing bigger than his for ceasar. In William blakes poison tree hate grows throughout the poem. The poet treats hate like a plant that if you water enough can have serious consequences.  The  speaker gets annoyed with a friend and he becomes his foe. The poet hints at the grudge to be like an apple tree and the apple is the death of his foe. In the second stanza it shows the speaker turning actions in to hate, “and i watered it in fears,” this hows how hate grows this is similar the Cassius his hate grows through actions Cesar could not swim it made him hate him, ceasar gets asked to be king Cassius hates him more.

Passion is the most prominent link between both poems and Julius Caesar. Browning questions it as well as Shakespeare. I believe that browning was influenced by the events that happened at the time in which he wrote. Shakespeare also did this he question which love is right. Is it tough love like Brutus give Caesar or gentle love in which Calpurnia shows him. is it the hard love shown by the killers of the soft love of porphyria. In both browning’s poetry and Julius Caesar they share foreshadowing, Although they both have very different style of writing they both have characters who have made decisions’ early on in the texts that affect how the end of the text happens. Brutus spares Anthony who eventually affects his death. Cassius started hating Caesar because he was greater than him, when Cassius dies the last thing he says is “Caesar, thou art reveng’d Even with the sword that kill’d thee” Cassius ends up hating his decisions more than Caesar. In the Laboratory browning shows foreshadowing as well because at the start of the laboratory it is almost consistently about her hate for her ex and the further through the text it starts to talk more about her self. “You may kiss me, old man, on my mouth if you will! But brush this dust off me, lest horror it brings.”

love and hate

Robert browning

Browning show passion is something to be feared and can be consuming consuming. Although the narrator kills porphyria seemingly without reason, his mood is represented through the weather “it tour the elms tops down for spite and did it’s best to vex the lake” The opening of the poem helps illustrate the narrators anger, the techniques is called pathetic fallacy, as it describe the weather with word that you associate with bad temper. Not only do i think that browning wants to show the narrators dark outlook but i belive that he also is trying to show that porphyria her self angers the narrator, although this does not justify her death it does give use a reason, it also show a reason why he hates porphyria to begin with.

further through the monologue porphyria’s lover describes porphyria describes her love as something that she cannot control. this is a sign of love that is just as extreme as his potential hate


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